你知道英文中每个月份的名称拥有何到来历?

  [摘要]跟遂新壹年的末了尾,能你近日到又买进了壹本新日记本或日历本,或许你会想:“日历上此雕刻些关于月份的词是从何而到来的呢?”借此雕刻间,我们要给你的新年方案又加以上壹项:了松壹年什二个月名称的到来历。

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  As the new year starts you might have recently bought a new diary or calendar and thought ‘Where do these words come from?’ – at least that’s what I did. There is also, of course, also the chance that you have been merrily scheduling in gym appointments and book clubs and all sorts of other details relating to New Year’s resolutions (have you kept yours so far?) but we’ll take the opportunity to add a resolution to your list: learn where we got the names for all the months of the year. Spoilers: it’s a mixture of gods, rulers, and numbers.

  跟遂新的壹年的末了尾,能你近日到又买进了壹本新的日记本或日历本,或许你会想:“日历上此雕刻些关于月份的词是从何而到来的呢?”——到微少我拥有此雕刻么的疑讯问。天然,也拥有能你已经兴会勃勃地装置排好了你的新年方案:去健身房熬炼,参加以就学俱乐部以及其它各类活触动(此雕刻些活触动你当今还拥有僵持下吗?)但借此雕刻间,我们要给你的新年方案又加以上壹项:了松壹年什二个月名称的到来历。剧透壹下:它们与神物、秉国者和数字邑拥有相干。

  January 壹月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  January is named after the Roman god Janus, who presided over doors and beginnings – appropriately enough, for the beginning of the year (though this is, as you will discover, not as straightforward as it seems). Indeed, Janus was usually depicted with two faces looking backwards and forwards, as is often characteristic of a new year; this also gave rise to the term Janus word for words that have two opposite meanings.

  January是以罗马神物话中副面神物杰纳斯(Janus)的名字命名的。他担负司守出身以及万物的始末了——干为壹年的末了尾,他很适宜(固然你会发皓,实则并没拥有拥有这么直不清雅)。雄心上,杰纳斯畅通日以副面孔示人,壹面回顾度过去,壹面凝视不到来,而此雕刻日日被视为新的壹年的特点;此雕刻也使得它的伸申词组“Janus word”(副面词)体即兴兼拥有两种相反含义的词。

  February 杏月如月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  February is ultimately based on Latin februarius, from februa. In case that’s not helped things become clearer, februa was the name of a purification feast held on the 15th of this month. February is a divisive issue in modern pronunciation, with both Feb-yoo-ary and Feb-roo-ary being commonly heard.

  February由弹奏丁语“februa”的衍生词“februarius”演募化而到来。能此雕刻么说并没拥有拥有说皓得很清楚,此雕刻边又增补养壹下:“februa”是此雕刻个月什五号举行的壹场涤罪行高会的名称。在当代当世英语(稀品课)中,人们对“February”的发音产生了不符,最日收听到的拥有两种,壹种是“Feb-yoo-ary”,还拥有壹种是“Feb-roo-ary”。

  March 叁月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  Which god gets a planet and a month named after him? You’ve guessed it: Mars. Why him? As the Oxford English Dictionary notes, ‘In ancient Rome several festivals of Mars took place in March, presumably in preparation for the campaigning season, since Mars was a god of war.’

  拥有哪位神物的名字既然是壹个星球的名字,又是壹个月份的名字呢?你们曾经猜到了:马尔斯(Mars)。为什么是他?《牛津英语词典》上记载:“在古罗马时间,壹些拥关于于马尔斯的节邑在叁月举行,想必是为了和往日期做预备,鉴于马尔斯是壹位战神物。”

  April 四月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  We know that the English word April comes from the Latin Aprillis, the fourth month of the ancient Roman calendar, but things are less clear after that. In Old English, April was also sometimes called Eastermonab, ‘Easter month’.

  我们知道英文词汇“April”到来源于弹奏丁语“Aprillis”,是古罗马日历的第四个月,但摒除此之外面,我们就不太清楚了。在古英语中,四月拥偶然也被称为“Eastermonth”,即“还魂月”。

  May 蒲月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  The month is connected with the goddess Maia. Perhaps less well known now than the other deities with months named after them, Maia (in Greek mythology) was daughter of Atlas and mother of Hermes. She was considered a nurturer and an earth goddess, which may explain the connection with this springtime month. Although may is a common modal verb, the month and the word are unrelated.

  此雕刻个月与玛雅女神物(the goddess Maia)拥关于。与其他神物比较,或许玛雅并没拥有拥有这么为人们所熟知,在希腊神物话中,她是阿特弹奏(Atlas)之女,同时亦赫尔墨斯(Hermes)之母亲。她被誉为养育者和父亲地女神物,此雕刻或容许以说皓为什么它是属于春天季的月份。固然“may”日日被用干神物态触动词,但它与蒲月并没拥有拥有相干。

  June 六月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  Having conceded one month to a Greek deity, we’re now back with the Romans: June is named after the ancient Roman goddess Juno, wife of Jupiter and goddess of marriage and childbirth. June was also once sometimes known as midsummer month.

  前面曾经拥有壹个月是以希腊女神物命名的了,当今我们又次回到罗马的神物灵:六月是以古罗马女神物丹诺言(Juno)命名的。她是主神物丹庇特(Jupiter)的爱人,是婚姻与分娩之神物。六月也曾壹度被认为是仲夏季月。

  July 七月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  The first month in the calendar named after a real person, July was named in honour of Julius Caesar after his death in 44 BC, July being the month of his birth. Before it was renamed, the month was known as Quintilis (borrowed into English as Quintile), which means ‘fifth’. If you’ve been counting, you’ll know that July isn’t the fifth month: we’ll come on to that when we reach September and October.

  July是日历中第壹个以真实的人物命名的月份,七月的命名是为了念心男尤里乌斯 凯撒(Julius Caesar)。公元前44年,凯撒父亲帝故故,七月是他出产生的月份。在更名之前,此雕刻个月叫做“Quintilis”(英语则为“Quintile”),意为“第五”。假设你数度过了的话,你会发皓七月并不是第五个月:此雕刻壹点在说到菊月和什月的时分我们会做出产说皓。

  August 八月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  Following suit, in 8 BC, the month Sextilis (‘sixth’) was renamed after Augustus, the first Roman emperor, who had died six years earlier. Augustus himself was given this title when he became emperor, having previously been known as Octavian. It came from the Latin augustus meaning ‘consecrated, venerable’ which gave rise to the English adjective august, ‘respected and impressive’.

  异样地,在公元前8年,“Sextilis” (‘sixth’)此雕刻个月以古罗马第壹位帝王奥古斯邑(Augustus)到来命名,他己己己早于六年前故故。奥古斯邑是他在成为帝王之时为己己己改的名字,在此雕刻之前,他叫奥克塔维装置(Octavian)。此雕刻个词到来源于弹奏丁语“augustus”,意为“神物圣的、犯得着酷爱崇的”,由此,august在做描绘词时拥有“犯得着酷爱崇的”的意思。

  September 菊月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  September follows on from Quinitlis and Sextilis, in that it comes from the Latin septem, ‘seven’. As with those (and the rest of the calendar), the numbering is a bit off now: September was originally the seventh month in an ancient Roman ten-month calendar, which started with March.

  “September”排在“Quinitlis”和“Sextilis”之后,是鉴于它到来源于弹奏丁语“septem”,在此雕刻边是指第七个月。到此雕刻边,此雕刻些月份(以及日历中其它月份)的排前言方法就拥有点混骚触动了:在古罗马的什月制日历中,September是第七个月份,阿谁日历是从March末了尾的。

  October 什月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  More of the same: octo is the Latin for ‘eight’, for that ten month calendar. Two months were added to the end of the calendar year around 713 BC, and the beginning of the year was moved to 1 January in 153 BC.

  同理,“octo”在弹奏丁语中是八的意思,故此在什月历中,它是指第八个月。在公元前713年摆弄,日历年的岁末儿子又加以了两个月,公元前153年将壹月壹日干为壹年的末了尾。

  November 什壹月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  The pattern continues: November comes from novem, ‘nine’. November is also, we’re afraid, used ‘with allusion to November’s position at the end of the year, and to the characteristic greyness, gloominess, etc., associated with it in the northern hemisphere’. The earliest known example of this allusive use comes from Jane Austen’s posthumously published novel Persuasion.

  还是相反的法则:“November”到来源于弹奏丁语“novem”,即第九个月。我们认为“Novembe”异样也“阴暗指其处于岁末了,用以体即兴灰阴暗、阴霾等,与北边半球相干”。此雕刻种阴暗指性的用法最早见于信-奥斯汀(Jane Austen)故故后出产版的《劝告》(Persuasion)壹书中。

  December 什杏月如月

  英文中每个月的名称拥有何到来历?

  And we finish off the year with December, from decem, ‘ten’. The month also comes with a brace of adjectives: Decemberish and Decemberly, the latter of which can also be used as an adverb. And there you have it: a whole calendar year of etymologies to see you through the whole of 2016.

  我们以“December”干为壹年的终结,它到来源于“decem”,此雕刻边指第什个月。此雕刻个词还拥有两个描绘词方法:“Decemberish”和“Decemberly”,后者还却用干副词。以上坚硬是却以伴你渡度过2016年的所拥有月份典故到来源了。

  英文到来源:Oxford Dictionary blog

  译者:刘梅华GNNU

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